Setting the Scene

REFRESH is designed to build on the momentum created in Euro-limpacs and other projects by continuing to advance our understanding of climate change impacts on freshwater ecosystems. During the early part of the Project we will;

i) review the effectiveness of adaptation and mitigation strategies already being practised in Europe at different scales (local, regional, national and European);

ii) generate scenarios of future changes in climate, land-use, nitrogen deposition and water resources to be used in driving catchment models and in cost-effectiveness analyses in case study catchments; and

iii) develop a dialogue with the user community with respect to the general adoption of scenarios and storylines to be used in REFRESH and to explore potential barriers to the implementation of measures being evaluated.

Left: Climate analogues of Europe and the Mediterranean basin in 2070. Hadley Centre Model, SRES A2.

The colours show the mean annual temperature (ºC) in the present climate. The locations of the cities shown indicate where their future climates would place them, e.g. Paris will have a climate more like southern Spain

Reference: S. Hallegatte ; J.-C. Hourcade ; P. Ambrosi, 2007, Using Climate Analogues for Assessing Climate Change Economic Impacts in Urban Areas, Climatic Change 82 (1-2), May, 2007, pp. 47-60, doi:10.1007/s10584-006-9161-z.